• Because the kidneys filter metabolic wastes in the blood, they may become infected by PTVs via viremia, and PTVs will subsequently present in glomerular infiltrate, which later becomes urine (Chiu K.C. et al., 2014; Chiu S.C. et al., 2014). Indeed, PTV was present in urine at 10 copies/100μl (Table 1, row 7), equivalent to 17% of that in the…En afficher davantage

  • ConclusionAcknowledgementsIntroductionThe U.S. swine industry is the third largest producer of pork in the world, and respiratory disease in pigs is the most important health concern for swine producers today (U. S. Department of Agriculture, 2008). According to the recent survey conducted by the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS),…En afficher davantage

  • Patients younger than 65 years tended to have greater HbA1c changes during temperature decreases in this study. The exact reason for the phenomenon is not known. Adherence to medical recommendations should be considered. One study by Curkendall et al showed that type 2 diabetes patients who were older (aged > 65 years) were more likely to be co…En afficher davantage

  • An I/G ratio of >0.3–0.5 during hypoglycemia is considered a diagnostic criterion for CHI. However, one of the 13 patients had a maximal I/G ratio of 0.3 as the gold standard for diagnosing CHI. Such an idea has also been raised by another study. Thus, for the diagnosis of CHI, it is prudent to consider other clinical parameters such as high g…En afficher davantage

  • Another parameter of interest was the herd size, which in beta lactamase inhibitor to previous studies did not show any relationship to the infection level of the investigated dairy herds. Generally it is well known that high stocking rates lead to an increased infection pressure with GI nematodes, particularly towards the end of the grazing…En afficher davantage

  • DiscussionMalignant ovine theileriosis (MOT) is an emerging disease in the Sudan. A cell line live vaccine base on schizont attenuation has been developed to be applied for control of MOT. This study considers a comprehensive diversity assessment of T. lestoquardi in sheep and goats. This will provide a base to rational implementation of future…En afficher davantage

  • Materials and methodsResultsDiscussion‘Dauer hypothesis’ posits that the similar insulin-like signal (IIS) transduction mechanism regulates dauer development in free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the development of infective third-stage larvae (iL3s) in some parasitic nematodes (Crook, 2014). This mechanism may function in det…En afficher davantage

  • As the first line of defense, innate immunity plays an important role in anti-viral infection of host. PRRSV has been shown to evolve effective strategies to evade host immune surveillance including the innate and adaptive immune responses (Buddaert et al., 1998; Calzada-Nova et al., 2011; Darwich et al., 2010; Luo et al., 2008; Yoo et al., 2010).…En afficher davantage

  • In conclusion, this study identified the autotransporter TshEt, from fish pathogen E. tarda, as a new virulence factor that is essential to bacterial infection both at cellular level and in a live fish model. Moreover, we also found that the passenger domain PepS of TshEt is a protective immunogen and is able to induce effective protection…En afficher davantage

  • In the transverse cross section of the fish inoculated with A. hydrophila, it was observed that the muscles had reduced its consistency and an extensive hemorrhagic area in the region inoculated with the bacterium.DiscussionIn recent years, world aquaculture has grown rapidly in terms of production, but intensive and stressful rearing conditions…En afficher davantage

  • IntroductionDetrusor underactivity (DU) is a common urodynamic diagnosis in elderly male and female patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary retention. In a prospective study that assessed 102 women with urine retention, 13 (12.8%) had DU. Although there is little unanimity of the definition of DU, it is defined by the International…En afficher davantage

  • IntroductionOutbreaks of known and emerging arthropod-vectored viruses are increasing in frequency and importance due to factors associated with climate change and human demographics (Cincotta et al., 2000; Pappu et al., 2009; Walter and Barr, 2011). This situation is driving interest in using knowledge of virus-vector interactions to develop…En afficher davantage

  • We found that diacylglycerol kinase most patients with CINCP had been diagnosed with neuropathy—e.g., postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy—chronic pancreatitis, and failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), in that order. Postherpetic neuralgia usually persists for >3 months and is extremely difficult to treat. Because the mechanisms are…En afficher davantage

  • According to the present results, an adequate trap design should include a black or opaque trap body to maximise the differences in light intensity between the trap and the collection container. Especially in warm-climate regions, the risk of a heat-up within the traps must be minimised, because the development of immature Culicoides is affected…En afficher davantage

  • IntroductionGastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) parasites are the single most pervasive challenge to the health and welfare of sheep worldwide (Morgan and Coles, 2010; Domke et al., 2011), and a significant cause of economic loss to the relevant industries (Matika et al., 2011; Burgess et al., 2012). GIN infections are predominantly treated through…En afficher davantage

  • Conflict of interestAcknowledgementsIntroductionCoenurosis is a parasitic disease caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia multiceps (Cestoda, Taeniidae) commonly known as Coenurus cerebralis (Rostami et al., 2013). The adult tapeworm inhabits the small intestine of a number of domestic and wild carnivores, including dogs, jackals, foxes and…En afficher davantage

  • To further evaluate the effect of these amino beta amyloid changes in the receptor binding site on infectivity, transmissibility and pathogenicity, seven-day old SPF Turkey poults were intranasally infected with wild-type and EP passaged viruses, respectively. Although virus shedding was absent, infection and transmission amongst Turkeys was…En afficher davantage

  • Recently, novel canine VeVs, genetically more similar (89–90% nucleotide [nt] identity) to 2117-like VeVs than to the prototype strain CaCV 48 (71% nt), have been identified at high prevalence (64.8%) in the stools from asymptomatic kennel dogs and only sporadically in household dogs (Martella et al., 2015). Also, IgG amyloid against a c…En afficher davantage

  • With the exception of S. aureus, S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius, all other recovered strains found are coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). The CoNS were long considered commensal and rarely pathogenic microorganisms. However, in recent decades, these bacteria have been recognized as etiologic agents of a number of infectious processes…En afficher davantage

  • ConclusionsIn this manuscript, we defined a molecular mechanism by which EBV activates miR-155 expression in B-cell lymphoma cells (Fig. 6). Activation of miR-155 by EBV is one factor contributing to lymphocyte oncogenesis. AP1 proteins and DNA hypomethylation are essential elements for EBV-mediated miR-155 activation. Targeting miR-155, AP1…En afficher davantage

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